Effectiveness of nadh in alleviating effects of acute sleep deprivation

Effectiveness_of_nadh_in Alleviating_Effects_of_Acute_Sleep_Deprivation

INTRODUCTION
Chronic sleep deprivation is very common in the general population, leading to well-described
difficulties in concentration and cognitive performance and increases in irritability and malaise, among
other symptoms (1). Acute sleep deprivation, when an individual must forgo most or all of a night’s
sleep can also lead to immediate daytime consequences. Ta combat the effects of sleep lass, several
types of strategies have been recommended, including the consumption of alertness-promoting
pharmaceuticals (2) or n utraceuticaJs, the latter comprised of nutritional, over-the-counter types of
products (3).
Until the last few years, typical prescription medications to promote alertness included adrenergic
drugs such as amphetamine, methylphenidate, and pemoline (2,4). Given its FDA-approved use for
sleepiness with patients with narcolepsy, such attention has also been placed on modafinil as a wakepromoting
agent following sleep deprivation (5). Wesensten and colleagues (5) showed that modafinil
use maintained performance and alertness during a sustained wakefulness paradigm, but was
comparable to a caffeine group.
Caffeine has been studied extensively as a countermeasure for sleepiness resulting from sleep
deprivation (see for example 6,7). In addition, there has been recent interest in the “functionaJ energy
drinks” (8) such as Red BuH (T), that contain caffeine as weil as taurine, glucuronolactone, glucose,
and B vitamins. Such an energy drink has been shown to improve scores on a simulated driving test
followirrg restricted sleep on the previous night (8,9). When tested early in the subjective night, young
subjects performed better on cognitive tests following a taurine-caffeine beverage (10).
Ginseng and ephedrine are also available over-the-counter as agents that allegedly promote
increased energy and performance (3). However, Ueberman (3) reports that the data on effectiveness
of ginseng are not definitive, and studies have had questionable contral groups and definitions that
render interpretation difficult. Ephedrine, while appearing similar to caffeine in sohle protocols,
nevertheless can lead to serious and life-threatening cardiovascular effects that render its use
inadvisable.
Finally, another approach to improving energy and well-being is t he oral stabilized supplement of
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), marketed as ENADA or ENADAfert. NADH is a coenzyme
that is invoJved in cellular production of ATP (11). This product was reported to improve
symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (12). In addition, in a jet lag paradigm involving
actual t ravel, subjects treated with 20 mg of sublingual .stabilized NADH performed better on four
cognitive test measures and reported less sleepiness at the time of testing at the destination than
those who had received placebo (13,14). In a chronic toxicity study in rats, no treatment-related
adverse events were reported (15).

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